mercury-vapour lamp

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A type of discharge tube in which a glow discharge takes place in mercury vapour. The discharge takes place in a transparent tube of fused silica or quartz into the ends of which molybdenum and tungsten electrodes are sealed; this tube contains argon and a small amount of pure mercury. A small arc is struck between a starter electrode and one of the main electrodes causing local ionization of some argon atoms. The ionized atoms diffuse through the tube causing the main discharge to strike; the heat from this vaporizes the mercury droplets, which become ionized current carriers. Radiation is confined to four visible wavelengths in the visible spectrum and several strong ultraviolet lines. The light is bluish but can be changed by the use of phosphors on an outer tube. The outer tube is also usually used to filter out excessive ultraviolet radiation. The lamp is widely used for street lighting on account of its low cost and great reliability and as a source of ultraviolet radiation.

Subjects: Physics — Chemistry.

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