Pope from 1922. Achille Ambrogio Damiano Ratti made ‘the restoration of all things in Christ’ the chief object of his pontificate. To this end he issued a number of influential encyclicals, including ‘Casti Connubii’ (1930), condemning contraception, and ‘Quadragesimo Anno’ (1931), on social questions; and he gave his support to Catholic Action. The Jubilee of 1925 was the occasion of many canonizations (including that of St Teresa of Lisieux). The most important political event of his reign was the Lateran Treaty of 1929 (q.v.). His last years were overshadowed by the events in Europe which led to the outbreak of the Second World War.