Is a city, royal burgh, and university town in the north‐east of the county of Fife in Scotland. It developed from a royal fortress of the Picts situated on the site later built over by St Andrews castle. Never technically part of the medieval burgh, this area fostered the cult of St Andrew, which became national. Between 1160 and 1318 was built the cathedral which with its 357‐foot‐long nave was the largest church in Scotland.
A municipality was erected under Bishop Robert around 1140. In 1412–13 Bishop Wardlaw and Pope Benedict XIII incorporated and chartered St Andrews University, the nation's first. St Andrews was a cockpit of the Reformation. John Knox retired there, while Andrew Melville, father of Scots presbyterianism and bane of King James VI and I, was head of St Mary's College. Uniquely good golfing facilities at the Royal and Ancient club helped the town to become a residential and resort centre from the mid‐19th cent.
Subjects: Literature — History.