1 The movement of capital, labour, goods, and services through an economy. See Hughes on alternative forms of economic organization (2005, PHG29, 4); on transnational trade and governance (2006, PHG30, 5); and on the circulation of knowledge (2007, PHG31, 4).
2 In population geography, short-term, repetitive movements of individuals, where there is no intention to change residence permanently. Adepojou in P. Kok (2006) observes that, in southern Africa, poverty has drawn more people into circulation or temporary migration, and notes that ‘brain drain’ is being transformed into ‘brain circulation’. See also Curry and Kobarski (1998) Asia Pac. Viewpt 39 on circulation in Papua New Guinea.