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(antipope 12 Nov. 1425?: d. ?)

While the three of Antipope Benedict XIII's cardinals who were at Peñiscola, on the Spanish coast north of Valencia, when he died elected Gil Sanchez Muñoz as Clement VIII (10 June 1423), the fourth, Jean Carrier, was far away in the county of Armagnac, acting as Benedict's vicar-general. Rejoining his colleagues on 12 Dec. 1423, he decided, after a prolonged examination, that their election of Sanchez Muñoz was invalid because of simony and other irregularities. On 12 Nov. 1425 he therefore took it upon himself to nominate as pope a certain Bernard Garnier, a sacrist of Rodez, and consecrated him. Out of respect for Benedict XIII this suddenly elevated pontiff adopted his name, but once count John IV of Armagnac, his patron, was reconciled to Martin V, he disappeared into oblivion. Nothing is known of his earlier or subsequent career, or of the date of his death; but in 1467, in the region of Armagnac, some fanatics were still awaiting the vindication of Benedict XIV. He had, however, created one cardinal, and this cardinal proceeded to elect Jean Carrier, who also took the title Benedict XIV.

Further Reading

A. Degert, ‘La Fin du Schisme d'Occident’, in Mélanges Léon Couture (1902), 223–42DHGE xii. 1247 (R. Mols)Levillain i. 167–8 (F.-C. Uginet)Seppelt iv. 273

Subjects: Christianity.

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