1 The defence to an action for defamation that the defamatory statement made was true. It is for the defendant to prove that the statement was true. Truth is a complete defence to a civil action for defamation, except where true statements about spent convictions are proved to have been made maliciously.
2 The defence that interference with the contractual or business relations of another was justified. The scope of the defence is uncertain, but the fact that the wages of chorus girls were so low that they were compelled to resort to prostitution has been held to justify a theatrical performers' protection society inducing theatre owners to break their contracts with the girls' employer (Brimelow v Casson  1 Ch 302). See inducing breach of contract.
3 In criminal law, a category of defence reflecting the determination that the defendant's conduct was not, all things considered, criminally wrongful. Self-defence and necessity are often commonly assumed to be central examples of justification. It is often said that justification defences focus on the action, whereas excuse defences focus on the actor: actions are justified, actors are excused. See also duress.
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