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The action or state of including or of being included within a group or structure. The principle that binds together the present UK government's (and indeed Europe's) social policy is the reduction in the number of people and places experiencing ‘*social exclusion’ from mainstream societal activities and the promotion of ‘social inclusion’ into these activities (Social Exclusion Unit 2001), and the Sustainable Development Commission promotes social inclusion and environmental justice (SDC 2002). Cameron (2006) PHG30, 3 observes that inclusion is mostly defined by exclusion, and laments the ‘general failure to develop a critical understanding of the real and discursive geographies of social inclusion…The economic, political and behavioural norms that characterize social inclusion are no longer connected to a particular place or space.’ Stewart in P. Askonas and A. Stewart, eds (2000) thinks that an understanding of social inclusion involves ‘the recognition and acceptance of the historically situated and therefore contingent character of prevailing institutional realizations of justice and concomitantly privileged conceptions of the good life obtaining at any point in time’. Gray in Askonas and Stewart (op. cit.) argues that the disruption of solidaristic social formations (particularly states) as a consequence of economic globalization renders any meaningful form of social inclusion impossible. I. M. Young (2000) insists that demographic practices depend on inclusion. See also Holt (2008) PHG32, 2.

Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

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