1. (ideological incorporation) In Marxist theory, the disputed notion that the dominant ideology in a capitalist society functions to incorporate the working class, thus maintaining social order and cohesion.
2. The Marxist stance that working-class consciousness has been shaped by the ideology of the dominant class. The mass media are argued to play a major part in this process, leading to the working class taking for granted the status quo (and to working-class conservatism): a process Marcuse referred to as deradicalization.
3. (co-option, recuperation) The process in which popular countercultural forms (especially youth subculture fashions) are commodified by the culture industries: see also commodification; dominant forms; emergent forms; residual forms.