House of Holstein-Gottorp
Rüthning, G., Oldenburgische Geschichte (2 vols., Bremen, 1911).
Frederick Augustus I (sixth in descent from Frederick I of Denmark; count of Oldenburg 1773; duke 1777)
Peter Frederick William (son; union with France 1810–13)
Peter Frederick Louis (nephew of Frederick Augustus I; regent 1785–1823)
Paul Frederick Augustus (son; grand duke 1829)
Nicholas Frederick Peter (son)
Frederick Augustus II (son; deposed, died 1931; proclamation of the republic)
Subjects: Renaissance Art.