United Monarchy of Israel
Kingdom of Judah
(Babylonian conquest 587/6 bc)
Kingdom of Israel
(Assyrian conquest 722 bc)
Chronology, calendar, and dating
For the chronological problems, see Galil, ch. i and Thiele, ch. ii. Modern interpretations of the biblical data presuppose the alternation of ante-dating and post-dating at various points in the history of the Divided Monarchy (see under Babylonia), and are at variance over the beginning of the calendar and regnal year (whether spring or autumn) and the question of co-regencies.
Dates of reign, which are approximate to 609 b.c., are those of Thiele. For the Assyrian conquest of Israel, see Galil, ch. v. The first Babylonian capture of Jerusalem took place in March, 597 (ibid., 108); the final fall of the city occurred in July 587 (Andersen) or 586 (Galil). For further bibliography on the Divided Monarchy, see ibid.
Names and titles
Uzziah, Jehoahaz (in Judah), Jehoiakim, and Zedekiah are throne names, and the same may be true of David (for Elhanan) and Solomon (for Jedidiah). A. M. Honeyman, “The Evidence for Regnal Names among the Hebrews,” Journal of Biblical Literature, LXVII (1948), 13–25.
Andersen, K. T., “Die Chronologie der Könige von Israel und Juda,” Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament, III (1989), 1–45.Galil, G., Chronology of the Kings of Israel and Judah (Leiden, 1996).Merril, E. H., “The ‘Accession Year’ and Davidic Chronology,” Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society, XIX 1989, 101–12).Thiele, E. R., The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (3rd edn., Grand Rapids, 1983).
Asa (son or brother)
Jehoshaphat (son; co-regent 872)
Jehoram (son; co-regent 853)
Jehoash (son of Ahaziah)
Uzziah (Azariah) (son; co-regent 792)
Jotham (son; co-regent 750)
Ahaz (son; co-regent 735)
Manasseh (son; co-regent 697)
Jehoahaz (Shallum) (son; deposed)
Jehoiakim (Eliakim) (brother)
Jehoiachin (son; deposed)
Zedekiah (Mattaniah) (son of Josiah; deposed)
Omri (rival king)
Jeroboam II (son; co-regent 793)