Common English translation of the Sanskrit term bodhi.which strictly means ‘awakening’ rather than ‘enlightenment’. Some scholars have criticized the translation ‘enlightenment’ as possibly misleading in view of its Western cultural and historical associations, although it has become widely established in the secondary literature. Enlightenment is the state that marks the culmination of the Buddhist religious path. The archetypal enlightenment was that of the Buddha when he attained nirvāṇa under the Bodhi Tree at the age of 35, although many disciples subsequently achieved the same goal. In Japanese Buddhism (see Japan) the experience of awakening is known as satori or kenshō.