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A mutual dependency based on an ability to produce goods in one area which are needed in another, as with the import of Japanese manufactured goods to Australia, and the export of Australian agricultural goods to Japan (D. Rumley1999). Nazara et al. (2006) J. Geog. Sys. 8, 3 explore the degree to which complementarity and competitive interaction at one level in the hierarchy persist at lower or higher levels.

Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

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