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Appeals by clergy and laity to authorities higher than their diocesan bishops were based on Roman civil law and regulated by several councils. In England from the time of Henry II successive kings had tried to limit appeals to Rome; they were finally abolished in 1534 by Henry VIII, who made the Court of Delegates the final arbiter in ecclesiastical causes. Appeals in the C of E are now governed by the Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction Measure 1963.

Subjects: Christianity.

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