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Extensive copper mines dating from the Bronze Age have been discovered at Great Ormes Head, Llandudno. Most of the evidence for copper mining, however, comes from the post‐medieval period. A monopoly organization, the Company of Mines Royal, was founded in 1567 to locate and mine metals, including copper. German workers were employed by the Company in the Coniston area during the late 16th century. Many disputes over the Company's rights arose where copper was found in association with other metals. The Company lost its monopoly in 1689, after which a major growth in copper production occurred. In 1768 enormous deposits of low‐grade copper ore were discovered at Parys Mountain, Anglesey, where proximity to an adequate harbour and sea routes allowed rapid expansion; extensive physical evidence survives in the form of open‐cut workings and the remains of tanks and other works connected with dressing ore. A number of other places, e.g. Alderley Edge (Cheshire) and Llanberis (North Wales), mined and smelted copper.

Production in Cornwall rose considerably in the 19th century, particularly after the sinking of deep mines drained by steam pumping engines; Cornwall's most productive years were between 1820 and 1870. See D. B. Barton, A History of Copper Mining in Cornwall (1978). See also Eric G. Holland, Coniston Copper Mines: A Field Guide (2000).

http://www.cornwall-calling.co.uk/mines.htm Copper mining.

Subjects: History.

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