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1 A permanent heritable change in a cell, particularly a bacterial cell, that occurs as a result of its acquiring foreign DNA. Nonvirulent bacterial cells can be transformed into virulent forms if cultured in a medium containing killed virulent bacteria.

2 The conversion of a normal cell into a malignant cell (see cancer), which can be brought about by mutation of genes, sometimes through the action of carcinogens or oncogenic viruses.

Subjects: Chemistry — Genetics and Genomics.

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