1. In face-to-face interaction, the direction in which the head, gaze, and/or torso of a communicator is facing or angled relative to another participant (broadly, towards or away from them). Where people do not know each other well, leaning forward towards the other person is usually associated with more liking, higher involvement, or deference. See also personal space; posture.
2. In visual representation, see frontality; landscape format; portrait format.
3. In communication theory and functionalist media sociology, the functional focus of a communicative act (see communicative functions; concept-oriented communication; interaction-oriented communication; meaning-oriented communication; media functions; message-oriented communication; person-oriented communication; process-oriented communication; receiver-oriented communication; role-oriented communication; sender-oriented communication; socio-oriented communication; task-oriented communication). Advertising may be product-oriented (see product-information format) or user-oriented (see personalized format). A competent professional writer composing a complex text tends to move from a writer-oriented phase to a reader-oriented one.
4. (linguistics) The dominant linguistic function in an act of communication, or the constituent element in a communication model which is the focus for a particular function (e.g. the code-oriented metalingual function in Jakobson's model).
5. In cross-cultural comparisons, for group-orientation see collectivistic cultures; for individual-orientation, see individualistic cultures.
6. For value-orientation, see values.
7. For sexual orientation, see sexual identity.