The adoption in northern Europe, mainly Germany and the Netherlands, of the artistic ideals of the Italian Renaissance. The prime mover was the German artist Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528) who travelled twice to Italy to discover the ‘secrets’ of the Italian masters, especially the mathematical principles of perspective and proportion. Dürer's own ideas were widely disseminated through his prints and his writings. Flemish artists who travelled to Italy and were strongly influenced by its art included Jan Gossaert and Jan van Scorel. See Romanism.