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Richard II's political opponents of 1387–8 are known as the appellants, for it was by means of the legal process of appeal that they proceeded in Parliament against the king's ministers. The king had been humiliated in Parliament in 1386, when his chancellor Michael de la Pole, earl of Suffolk, was impeached. In the *‘Merciless Parliament’ of February 1388, Richard's five chief opponents, the earls of Gloucester, Arundel, Warwick, Derby, and Nottingham, appealed Suffolk, de Vere, the archbishop of York, Robert Tresilian (the chief justice), and Nicholas Brembre of London, accusing them of treason. Tresilian and Brembre were executed; the archbishop of York was translated to St Andrews, while Suffolk and de Vere both died in exile. In 1397 Richard II revenged himself on the appellants, engineering an appeal against Gloucester, Warwick, and Arundel.

Subjects: British History.

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