Tradition of painting associated with the city of Avignon in southern France, originating during the period when the papal court was transferred there because of anarchic conditions in Rome (1309–77). The presence of this great source of patronage drew many artists to the city, including illustrious Italian masters, among them Simone Martini and possibly Giotto. The centre of artistic activities was the Palace of the Popes, begun in the 1330s, which has several frescos dating from around 1350. After the departure of the popes, Avignon became the centre of a school of painting that amalgamated Italian with Netherlandish influences, notably in the work of Enguerrand Quarton and Nicolas Froment. The famous Avignon Pietà (c.1460, Louvre, Paris) is now generally attributed to Quarton, but many works that were at one time attributed to the School of Avignon have since been reassigned and it is no longer a clearly defined stylistic entity.