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Nearness in space, time, or relationship. Oerlemans et al. (2001) Tijdschrift 92, 1 explain the proximity effect as benefiting from localized ties. Boschma (2005) Reg. Studs 39 claims that geographical proximity per se is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for learning to take place. Nevertheless, it facilitates interactive learning, most likely by strengthening the other dimensions of proximity. However, proximity may also have negative impacts on innovation due to the problem of lock-in. Accordingly, not only too little, but also too much proximity may be detrimental to interactive learning and innovation. Ponds et al. (2007) Papers Reg. Sci. 86, 3: geographical proximity plays ‘a significant, yet minor role for collaboration between academic organisations within the Netherlands’—but a quick study of the scholars writing on geographical proximity shows a preponderance of Dutch/Flemish surnames!

Subjects: Media Studies — Earth Sciences and Geography.

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