Within five years of the first Spanish invasion (1519) Franciscan and other RC missionaries arrived. Conversions were numerous, if not always entirely voluntary, and much paganism remained under an outward profession of Christianity. Mexican independence was won in 1821, but the Church's influence remained strong until the mid-19th cent., when Church and State were separated and all ecclesiastical property was nationalized. Under the 1917 constitution, Church schools were closed and the number of priests strictly regulated. Further conflict between Church and State arose in 1926, but by 1929 a modus vivendi had been achieved. In 1992 amendments to the constitution recognized Churches of all denominations as legal entities, with the right to hold property, and legalized the presence of foreign clergy.