Ottoman sultan who implemented sweeping reforms, known as Nizam-i Jedid (new system), in civil administration and education. Established a new military corps armed and organized according to modern European principles and techniques of warfare. Introduced gun making, printing presses, and translation of Western works into Turkish. Introduced algebra, trigonometry, ballistics, mechanics, and metallurgy into school curricula in order to sustain the army. Imported teachers from Europe to implement the new curriculum. Deposed by a coalition of ulama and Janissaries who represented conservative forces opposed to Western influences. His reforms laid the foundation for the nineteenth-century Tanzimat reforms.