The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Neuroscience is a collection of interdisciplinary research spanning philosophy (of science, mind, and ethics) and current neuroscience. Containing articles written by some of the most prominent philosophers working in this area, and in some cases co-authored with neuroscientists, this volume reflects both the breadth and depth of current work in this field. Topics include the nature of explanation in neuroscience; whether and how current neuroscience is reductionistic; consequences of current research on the neurobiology of learning and memory,...
The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Neuroscience is a collection of interdisciplinary research spanning philosophy (of science, mind, and ethics) and current neuroscience. Containing articles written by some of the most prominent philosophers working in this area, and in some cases co-authored with neuroscientists, this volume reflects both the breadth and depth of current work in this field. Topics include the nature of explanation in neuroscience; whether and how current neuroscience is reductionistic; consequences of current research on the neurobiology of learning and memory, perception, and sensation; neuro computational modeling, and neuroanatomy; the burgeoning field of neuroethics and the neurobiology of motivation that increasingly informs it; implications from neurology and clinical neuropsychology, especially in light of some bizarre symptoms involving misrepresentations of self; the extent and consequences of multiple realization in actual neuroscience; the new field of neuro eudamonia; and the neurophilosophy of subjectivity. This volume demonstrates how current neuroscience is being brought to bear directly on philosophical issues, how some research programs are being enriched by interaction with philosophers, and how two seemingly disparate disciplines—one traditional and humanistic, the other new and scientific—are being brought together to both disciplines' mutual benefit.
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Keywords: science; mind; ethics; explanation; reductionistic; neurobiology of learning and memory; perception; sensation; neuro computational modeling; neuroanatomy
Index Terms: Abduction; Aberrant salience; Absorption spectra, of S‐, M‐, L‐cones; ACC.; Action correction; Action in Perception (Noë); Activating transcription factor (ATF); Activation; Active maintenance; Active vision; Activities; Actor‐Critic systems; Adaptation, visual field and; Adenosine triphosphate (ATP); Adjacency rule conformance; Affective dimension, of pain; Affordance climbability; Affordances; Agency; AIB neurons; AIY neurons; Aizawa, Ken; Alcohol withdrawal, object exploration; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation; Alien control; Allen, Colin; Allocentric spatial representation; α‐amino‐3‐hydroxy‐5‐methyl‐4‐isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA); Amnesia; Amodal emulator; AMPA.; Amygdala; Anderson, Per; Animal emotions, case for; Animal models.; Animal welfare, institutions for; Animal Welfare Board; Anisomycin, microinfusion of; Anomalous trichromats; Anosognosia; Anterior cingulate (ACC), pain and; Anterior insula, delusional experience and; Anterograde amnesia; Anthropic principle, brain wiring optimization and; Antinociception; Anton's syndrome; Anxiety‐depression continuum; Aperiodic environments; Apparent motion; Aristotle; Artificial scotoma; AS.; Asomatognosia; Associationist learning, computationalism and; Associationist psychology, learning and; ATF.; Atomic level, multiple realization at; Atomic‐to‐molecular case, of multiple realization; ATP.; Attention; Attentional disorders, Zen meditation and; Attractors, concepts with; Attribution errors; Australian Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act; Autonoesis; Autoscopy (AS); AWC neurons; Bach‐y‐Rita, Paul; Barnes, C. A.; Barn owl auditory system; Basal ganglia; Basis functions; BCIs.; Beaton, M.J.S.; Bechtel, William; Behavior, cellular/molecular mechanisms and; Behavioral inhibition; Behavioral neuroscience; Behavioral Neuroscience; Behavioral objects; Behavioral sciences, theory construction in; Behavioral space; Behavioral suppression system, pain and; Behavioral systems, dynamical descriptions for; Behavioral time; Behavioral tracking, ruthless reduction and; Behaviorism; Bell, Charles; Bell‐Magendie law; Berlyne paper; Bernstein, Julius; Bickle, John; Biochemistry; Biological clocks; Biophysical and Biophysical Chemistry Study Section, of NIH; Biophysical Science: A Study Program (Oncley, Schmitt, Williams, Rosenberg, Bolt); Biophysics; Bizzi, Emilio; Blackmore, Susan; Blind people, biological clocks and; Bliss, Tim; Bloch, Felix; Block, Ned; Blocking effect, LTP and; Block's theory; Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals, of fMRI; bmali gene; bmali transcription; BMI.; BOLD signals.; Bolt, R.H.; Bottom‐up excitory experiments; Bottom‐up inhibitory experiments; Bottom‐up research model; Bottom‐up view, of delusional experience; Bounded‐resource paradigm; Brain; Brain activity, cognitive tasks and; Brain‐based experiences; Brain‐computer interfaces (BCIs); Brain dimensions, variations; Brain‐machine interface (BMI); Brain‐machine interface enhancement, neuroethics of; Brain‐machine interface‐related issues, sets of interdependent; Brain regions; Brain research; Brain wiring minimization, optimization landscapes and; Brain wiring optimization, anthropic principle and; Brain‐wise (Churchland); Brazier, Mary; Bridging levels; Brodmann, Korbinian; Brodmann's area; Brodmann's brain regions; Bucy, Paul; Buddhism; Buddhist priests; Bureau of Animal Welfare; Burley, J.; Burnham, William; Cacaque cerebral cortex, functional areas of; Cage tilt; Cajal, S.; Calibration, sensory input for; Calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII); cAMP.; cAMP‐PKA‐CREB‐gene targets pathway; cAMP response element (CRE); cAMP response element binding protein (CREB); Canadian Animal Welfare Law; CA neurons; Capgras/Cotard syndromes, asomatognosia and; Capgras syndrome; Carey, Susan; Cascades; Case‐based reasoning; Casein kinase; Catastrophic interference, of distributed representations; Categorization; Causal connections, discovering/confirming of; Causal hypotheses; Causal‐mechanical explanation; CBTC skeletomotor circuit.; CC.; Cell membrane; Cell‐to‐tissue case, of multiple realization; Cellular cognition; Cellular/molecular mechanisms, behavior and; Cerebrascope; C‐fiber stimulation; cGMP.; Chase control task; Chemero, Anthony; Cherniak, Christopher; Chicks, anxiety‐depression continuum in; Chimerical colors; Chirimuuta, Mazviita; Chisholm, Roderick; Chomsky, Noam; Chronesthesia; Chronic mild stress, object exploration and; Churchland, Patricia; Churchland, Paul; Circadian rhythms; Circuitry primacy, RF and; Circular path, path model on; Classical conditioning (CC); Climbability; Climbing, object exploration and; Clock genes; Closed‐loop controller; Cognition; Cognitive errors; Cognitive neuropsychology, philosophy and; Cognitive neuroscience; Cognitive Neuroscience Institute; Cognitive Neuroscience Society; Cognitive science; Cognitive tasks, brain activity and; Cognitive technologies; Coherence, two visual systems and; Color, enactivism and; “Colour of Happiness” (Flanagan); The Companion to Genethics (Burley, Harris); Compositional relations, in science; Computation, NEF and; Computational compositionality; Computationalism; Computational models, of primary visual cortex RFs; Computational neurogenomics; Computational productivity; Computational programs; Computational systematicity; Computational theory of mind; Computer vision; Concepts; Concepts defense content, of subjectivity; Concepts defense structure, of subjectivity; Conditioned place preference (CPP), pain and; Conditioned stimulus (CS); Conditioning; Confabulations; Confabulation syndromes, proliferation of; Connection, of mechanisms; Connection‐clusters; Connectionism; Consciousness; Conscious recall; Conscious states; Consolidation; Constitution; Constitutive explanation; Constitutive mechanistic explanations; Contact duration, trials; Contrast effects; Control; Control theory, divisions of; Convergence zones; Convergent four hypothesis; Cortex, 40Hz oscillations in; Cortical‐basal gangliathalamic‐cortical (CBTC) skeletomotor circuit; Cortical columns, organization of; Cortical stimulation; Cosmology, neuroanatomy and; Cotard syndrome; Coupling, in visual agnosia; CPP.; Craver, Carl; CRE.; CREB.; Creem‐Regehr, Sarah; Crick, Francis; Criteria; Cross‐phylogenic inference; Crowding, stress procedures; CRY dimers; CS.; Cue competition, attention and; Cultural/social issues, of BMI; Cummins, Robert; Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP); Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB); Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP); Cytoarchitectonic techniques; Cytochrome oxidase staining; Cytoskeletal protein molecules; Dalai Lama; Damadian, Raymond; DARPA.; Darwin, Charles; Davidson, Richie; De Anima (Aristotle); Decision making; Declarative memory; Decoding process; Deductive‐nomological (D‐N) theory of explanation; Deep brain stimulation; Deep Brain Stimulation Consortium; Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA); Delayed nonmatch to sample (DNMS); Delusional experience; DeMaeyer, L.C.M.; De Memoria (Aristotle); Democritus; Dendritic spines; Dennett, Daniel; Dentate gyrus (DG); Depression, animal models of; Derived intentionality; Descartes, Rene; De Sensu (Aristotle); Desire; Desires, instrumental; Desire system; Detail, two visual systems and; Determinism; Deuteranope, retina of; Developmental biology, neurogenomics and; Developmental molecular biology, neurogenomics and; DG.; Dharma Life (magazine); Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM‐IV); Different grain descriptions, multiple realization and; Dimensioned accounts, of multiple realization; Directional capacity, motivation and; Direction‐selective (DS); Dishabituation; Disjunctive propositions, neural pathways and; Disorders of experience; Distraction, attention and; Distraction‐like effects; Distractor‐like effects; Distributed representations, catastrophic interference of; DNMS.; D‐N theory of explanation.; Donders, Cornelius; Dopamine; Dopaminergic cells; Dopaminergic neurons; DOX.; Doxycycline (DOX); Drosophila, circadian rhythms in; DS.; DSM‐IV.; Dual systems hypothesis, enactivism and; du Bois‐Reymond, Emil; Duncan, Carl; Dynamics, NEF and; Dysexecutive prosopagnosia; Dysfunctional introspective processes; EC.; Ecological psychology; Effects, production of; Egocentric representation; Egocentric space; Egocentric spatial representation; Eichenbaum, Howard; Eigen, Manfred; Ekman, Paul; Electroconvulsive shock, amnesia and; 11‐cis‐retinal molecule; Eliasmith, Chris; Embedded neuron; Embodied activity, neuroscience of; Emergentism; Emotional awareness, in nonhuman animals; Emotional processing, neuropsychiatric disorders and; Emotional theory, of confabulations; Emotions, of non‐human animals; Empiricist theories, of delusional experience; Emulation, basis functions and; Emulation framework, for temporal representation; Emulation theory; Emulator; Enactivism; Enactivist responses; Encoding mechanisms; Endogenously active agents; Energy‐minimization approaches; Engrams; Entities; Entorhinal cortex (EC); Entrained rhythms; Entrainment; Environment, perception and; Environmental cues; Epicritic system; Epileptic seizures; Episodic memory; Epistemic reductionism; Erlanger, Joseph; Ernst, Richard; Ethical debate, on neurotechnological enhancement; Ethical/legal issues, of BMI; Ethically relevant social categories; Etiological explanations; Eudaimonics; European Union Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; Evans, Gareth; Excitatory stimulus, from FEF; Executive processes, confabulations and; Experiential blindness; Experiential irrationality; Explanandum phenomenon; Explanatory gap problem, of perceptual consciousness; Explanatory internal intervening variables; Explans; Explicit memory; Exploratory behaviors; Extended brain‐body‐environment systems; Extended cognition; Extended mind hypothesis; External memory; Eye movement, visual scene changes and; Face‐reading system; False memory reports; False propositions, neural pathways and; Fast pain system; Faulty hypothesis formation; Faulty reasoning; FDP algorithm.; Feedback control systems, motivation and; Feeder mechanism; Feedforward neural networks; FEF.; Feinber, Todd; Field effect; Filler terms, of mechanisms; Flanagan, Owen; fMRI.; Fodor, Jerry; Folk psychology; Force directed placement (FDP) algorithm; Forced water swim, stress procedures; 40 Hz oscillations, in cortex; Forward model; Fos‐B gene; Frank, Michael; Frankfurt, Harry; Franklin, Benjamin; Freedom; Free‐run rhythms; Free will; Fregoli syndrome; Frontal eye fields (FEF); Fuch, Perry; Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); Functional reduction; Gabor function; Gabor‐Heisenberg‐Weyl uncertainty; Gabrieli, J.; Galambos, R.; Gallagher, Shaun; Gallant, J.L.; Galvanism; Gasser, Herbert; Gaussian functions; Gaussian/linear gain; Gazzaniga, Michael; Gene; Genethics; Genetic algorithm; Genetic determinism; Genetic essentialism; Genetics; Genomics; GFP.; Gillett, Carl; Glutamate; Glutamate release; Goal‐directed systems; Goals, sequences of; Gold, Ian; Goleman, Dan; Golgi, C.; G protein molecule; Grau, Jim; Green fluorescent protein (GFP); Grush, Rick; Gyatso, Tenzin; Habituation; Hacking, Ian; Hallucinations, delusional experience and; Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen (Müller); Hand effect; Happiness; Hardcastle, Valerie; Harris, J.; Hartley, David; Hartline, Haldan K.; Hastings Center Report; HD.; Hebb, Donald; Hebbian learning; Heeger, David; Hegel, G.; Held and Hein's kitten experiment; Helmholtz, Hermann; Helmholtz phenomenon; Henle, J.; Hennevin, Elizabeth; Heterogeneous reductions; Heuristics of science, SR and; Heyser, Charles; Higher level science; Higher level states; Hillyard, Steven; Hippocampal encoding/consolidation structure; Hippocampal system; Hippocampus; Hirst, William; Hirstein, William; History of Neurophysiology in the 19th Century (Brazier); History of science, SR and; Hochberg, Julian; Holism/dualism; Homuncular explanation; Houk, James; How‐actually models; How‐plausibly models; How‐possibly models; How to Solve It (Polya); Hox genes; Hubel, David; Hull, Clark; Human cone opsins; Hume, David; Huntington's disease (HD); Hybrid reductionism; Hydrophobic segment, of dendritic spines; Hyperpolarizaton; Hypnosis, pain phenomenology and; Hypnotic induction studies, pain processing and; IASP.; Ideal explanatory text; Identification, confabulations and; Identity theory; IFG.; Illes, Judy; Implementation; Implicit memory; Indian Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Acts; Individual variation, in nervous system; Inefficiencies, in institutionalized science; Inference; “Inference to the best explanation,”; Inferior frontal gyrus (IFG); Inferior parietal lobule (IPL); Information hierarchy; Information processing, in psychology; Inhibitory networks, surround effects and; INSPEC; Institute for Biodiagnostics of the National Research Council of Canada; Institute for Scientific Information (ISI); Institutionalized science, inefficiencies in; Instrumental conditioning; Instrumental desires, adoption of; Integration; Intellectual History of Psychology (Robinson); Intentionality; Intentional neural manipulations, object exploration and; Intention types; Internal timers, of desire system; International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP); Intertheoretic reduction; Intertrial intervals (ITIs); Intervening causality; Intervening levels, mechanistic reduction and; Intrinsic timing; An Introduction to the Theory of Perception (Parsons); Introspection; Intuition; IPL.; ISI.; ITIs.; Jacobson's organ; James S. McDonnell Foundation; Jeannerod, Marc; Jessel, Thomas; Johnson, Marcia; Jones Leonard, B.; Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience; Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology; Kabat‐Zinn, Jon; Kalman filter (KF); Kalman gain; Kandel, Eric; Kant, Immanuel; Keeley, Brian; KF.; Kim, Jaegwon; Klüver, Henrich; Knowledge; Knowledge argument; Knowledge how; Koch, R.; Koch (Henle) Postulates (Henle, Koch); Koch's postulates; Korsakoff's syndrome; Kraepelin, Emil; Kuehni, Rolf; Kuffler, Stephen; Kuhn, Thomas; Landreth, Anthony; Languge‐bsed deductive inference; Lashley, K.S.; Late‐long‐term potentiation (L‐LTP); Latent inhibition, overshadowing and; Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN); Lateral intraparietal area (LIP); Lauterbur, Paul; Law of specific nerve energies (LSNE); Learning; LeDoux, J.E.; Left‐hand grasp coefficients; Lehninger, A.L.; Lesion/stimulation studies, of brain research; Lewis, D.J.; Leyden jar; LGN.; Limb recognition; Linear functions; LIP.; L‐LTP.; Localization; Location, of mechanisms; Locke, John; Logical deduction; Lømo, Terje; Long‐term memory; Long‐term potentiation (LTP); LSNE.; LTI control, dynamics equation for; LTP.; Ludwig, Carl; Luminous consciousness; Lycan, Bill; Macaques, ocular dominance columns of; Mach, Ernst; Machamer, Peter; Magendie, François; Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); Mandik, Pete; Manipulationist view; Mansfield, Peter; Massive multiple realization (MMR) hypothesis; Mathew's effect; McClelland, J.L.; McConnell, James V.; McDonnell Foundation; McDougall, William; McGaugh, J.L.; McNaughton, B.L.; M‐cone photopigment, sensitivity curve; MCS.; Meagher, Mary; Measured states; Measurement inverse; Measurement update; Mechanisms; Mechanism sketches; Mechanistic explanation; Mechanistic reduction; Medial intraparietal cortex (MIP); MEDLINE; Melatonin release; Mele, Alfred; Memory.; Memory consolidation; Memory storage, continuity of; Mens Project; Mental biophysics; Mental representation, semantics and; Mentor‐student relationship, in scientific discovery; Mescaline, visual effects of; Mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF); Messenger RNA (mRNA); Metta meditation; Military interest, in BMI; Mill, John Stuart; Miller, George; Miller, R.R.; Mill's methods; Mind and Brain: Dialogues in Cognitive Neuroscience (LeDoux, Hirst); Mind ‐brain problem; Minds; Minimally conscious state (MCS); MIP.; Mirror neuron network; Mirror neurons; Misanin, J. R.; Misguided beliefs; Misidentification syndromes; MMR hypothesis.; Modal emulator; Modality‐specific emulator; Model actogram; Model‐driven reinforcement learning; Molecular cognition; Molecular intervention, ruthless reduction and; Molecular processes, in brain; Molecule/mind links; Monkey translational vestibular ocular reflex; Montague, Read; Moore, G.E.; Moral cognition; Morality; Morris water maze; Motivation; Motivational control system, hierarchical structure of; Motivational salience; Motor control; Mouse thalamus axon; mperi knockouts; MRF.; MRI.; mRNA.; Müller, Georg Elias; Müller, Johannes; Multidimensional state space; Multilevel mind‐brain relations picture; Multiple realization; Mundale, Jennifer; Munsell chips; Murphy system; Nader, K.; Nagel, Ernest; Nagel, Thomas; Nagelian reduction; National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Strokes (NINDS); National Institutes of Health (NIH); National Research Council of Canada; National Science Foundation (NSF); Natural stimuli, RF and; Nauta, W.J.H.; NCV.; NEF.; Negative alteration; Negative feedback, motivation and; Nervous system; Network optimization theory; Networks, brain regions and; Neural activity; Neural correlate view (NCV); Neural engineering framework (NEF); Neural mechanisms, of desire; Neural network models, of learning; Neural pathways; Neural substrates, of SMC; Neural subsystem, generic; Neuroanatomy; Neurobehaviorism, prototypical examples of; Neurobiological criterion, of senses; Neurobiological facts, senses and; Neurobiological levels; Neurocomputation; Neuroethics; Neuro‐eudaimonics; Neurogenomics; Neurolaw; Neuromatrix; Neuron (journal); Neuronal network conditioning; Neuron‐electrode interface; Neuron network; Neurons; Neurophenomenology; Neurophilosophy; Neurophilosophy (Churchland); Neurophysiological experiments, images as stimuli in; Neurophysiology, decoupling computer vision from; Neuropsychiatric disorders; Neuroscience; Neurosciences Research Program (NRP); Neurosciences Research Program Bulletin; Neurosciences Research Symposium Summaries; Neuroscientific levels, properties at; Neurotechnological enhancement, ethical debate on; Neurotechnology; Neurotransmitters; New Scientist; Newton, Isaac; The New York Times; NIH.; NINDS.; Niv's model; NMDA.; NMDAR.; N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate (NMDA); N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptor (NMDAR); NMR.; Nociception; Nociceptive receptors; Noë, Alva; Nonbehavioral paradigm; Nondeclarative memory; Nondeterministic polynomial‐time complete (NP‐complete); Nondisjunctive proposition; Nonhuman animals.; Nonhuman animal studies, of noxious stimuli; Nonlocal analysis of frequency; Normalization model; “Not all objects are created equal” experiment; Novelty reactivity, animal studies of; Noxious stimuli, nonhuman animal studies of; NP‐complete.; NRP.; NSF.; Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); OBE.; Object choice; Object contact; Object exploration; Object recognition; Observation experiments; Observations on Man, His Frame, His Duty, and His Expectations (Hartley); Observed effects, of object exploration; Observed signal; Ocular dominance columns, of macaques; Oculomotor circuit, for saccade control; Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare; Olfactory protein genes; On Certainty (Wittgenstein); Oncley, J.; Online correction, motivation and; “On the Luminosity of Being” (Gyatso); On the Origin of Species (Darwin); Open‐loop controller; Operant conditioning chamber; Opsin; Optic ataxia; Optimists/pessimists, in cognitive neuroscience; Optimization landscapes, brain wiring minimization and; Orbitofrontal cortex; O'Regan, J. Kevin; O'Reilly, R.C.; Organ criterion, of senses; Organisms, phenotypic diversion of; Organizational features; Orientation channels; Oscillator, SCN AS; Out‐of‐body experience (OBE); Oxytocin; Pacherie, Elizabeth; Pacherie's dynamic theory of intentions; PAG.; Pagnoni, Guiseppe; Pain; Pain phenomenology, cortical substrates of; Pain processing; Pain studies, potential confounds of; PANIC theory; Paradigms, of science; Parallel Distributed Processing (Rumelhart, McClelland); Paralysis denial; Paraventricular nucleus (PVN); Parietal reaching region (PRR); Parieto‐occipital (PO); Parkinson's disease (PD); Parsons, John; Passive vision; Path integration; Path model, on circular path; Pathological self‐referential narratives; Pathways; Pavlovian conditioning; pCREB.; PD.; Penfeld, W.; Perception; Perceptual consciousness; Perceptual presence, puzzle of; Periaqueductal gray region (PAG); Period genes; PER proteins; Perseveration; Persistent vegetative state (PVS); Personal relatedness theory, of confabulations; Personhood; Person recognition; PET.; Pew Charitable Trusts; Phantom limb; Phase precession; Phenomenal character; Phenomenal concepts; Phenotypic diversion, of organisms; Pheromone‐detecting vomeronasal sense; Pheromones; Philipeaux, J.M.; Philipona, David; Philosophical objections, to MMR hypothesis; Philosophy, cognitive neuropsychology and; Philosophy of mind, subjectivity and; Philosophy of psychology; Philosophy of science; Phosphorylated CREB (pCREB); Phosphorylation, CREB and; Photopigment; Photopigment molecule; Physical chemistry; Physiological psychology; Pilzecker, Alfons; Pittendrigh, Colin; PKA.; Placebos, pain and; Plato; Pleasure; PO.; Polya, Geroge; Population representation; Positive affect; Positive alteration; Positive feedback, motivation and; Positive immune system effects, Buddhism and; Positron emission tomography (PET); Posner, Michael; Posterior parietal cortex (PPC); Postsynaptic currents (PSCs); Postural signals; Potassium ions; Pouget, Alexandre; PPC.; Prediction; Prefrontal cortices, positive affect and; Preparadigm phase, of science; Price, H. P.; Primacy effects; Primary Value Learned Value (PVLV); Primary visual area (V1); Primary visual cortex; Principles of Neural Science (Kandel, Schwartz, Jessel); Prismatic adaptation, enactivism and; Proattitudes, of desire; Problem‐solving heuristics; Procedural memory; Process; Process models; Productive continuity, mechanistic reduction and; Propositional knowledge; Propositional representation; Protanope, retina of; Protein expression; Protein kinase A (PKA); Protein synthesis, memory and; Protopathic system; PRR.; PSCs.; Pseudo‐closed‐loop control; Psychiatry, neurophilosophy and; Psychic blindness; Psychological phenomena, trajectory emulation and; Psychology, information processing in; Psychoneural reductionism; Psychophysics; Psychosis; Publication databases, searchable; Purcell, Edward; Puromycin, memory and; Putamen; Putnam, Hilary; Puzzle of perceptual presence; PVLV.; PVN.; PVS.; QAP.; Quadratic assignment problem (QAP); Qualia; Qualitative valence; Quantitative dimension, of pain; Quintillian; R.; Racine, Eric; Raichle, Marcus; Railton, Peter; Rate code view; Rate coding, biologically plausible; Rationality; Rats; Reality monitoring; Realization; Real reductionism; Recall mechanism, of memory; Recency effects; Receptive field (RF); Reconceptualizations; Reconsolidation; Reducing theory, laws of; Reduction.; Reductionism; Reductionism simpliciter; Reflectance coefficients; Regulatory/policy issues, of BMI; Reinforcement learning framework; Remote‐controlled rat, BMI and; REM sleep; Repetition (R); Representation.; Representationalists; Representational momentum; Representational states; Representational theory; Representing and Intervening (Hacking); Research and development investment; Response‐outcome (R‐O); Retina; Retinal cells; Retinal pathways, schematic diagram of; Retinal states; Retinohypothalamic tract; Retroactive amnesia; Retrograde, amnesia; Reverse engineering; REV proteins; Reward; RF.; Ribot, Théodule‐Armand; Ribot's law; Ricard, Matthieu; RNAi; R‐O.; Robins, Sarah; Robinson, Daniel; Rodent navigation system; Rods and cones, structure of; Rolls, Edmund; Rosenberg, Alex; Rosenberg, M.D.; Roskies, Adina; Rumelhart, D.E.; Ruthless reduction; Ryle, Gilbert; S‐, M‐, L‐cones, absorption spectra of; Saccade control, oculomotor circuit for; Salience effects; Sara, Susan; Scandinavian Physiological Society; Schafe, G.E.; Schizophrenic delusion; Schizophrenic psychosis; Schmitt, Francis; Schneider, A. M.; Schroeder, Timothy; Schultz, Wolfram; Schwann, Theodor; Schwartz, James; Science; Science of Research (SR); Scientific creativity, SR and; Scientific disciplines, emergence of new; Scientific discovery; Scientific literature; SCN.; Scotoma, artificial; Scoville, William; Searle, John; SEF.; Sejnowski, Terry; Self; Self‐agency; Self‐representation; Semantic memory systems; Semantics, mental representation and; Sensation, perception and; Sense organs, case against; Senses; Sensoimotor contingencies (SMCs); Sensorium; Sensory input, for calibration; Sensory‐motor pathway; Sensory residual; Sensory signals; Sequential action selection; Serial reaction time (SRT); Serotonin; Shepherd, Gordon; Sherman, W.; Short‐term memory; Siddhartha Gautama; Sigmoid function; Signal disruption, self‐agency and; Silva, Alcino; Simon, Herbert; Simple vector‐mechanical processes; Size/shape/orientation, of mechanisms; Skeletomotor circuit, CBTC; Skinner, B.F.; Skinner box; Skinner's behaviorism; Sleep‐wake cycle; Slow pain system; SMCs.; SNc.; Sociability; Social transmission of food preferences (STFP); Society for Neuroscience; Sociological factors, in science; Sociology, SR and; Soiled bedding, stress procedures; Sometimes Opponent Processes (SOP); SOP.; Spatial aspect; Spatial frequency; Spatial information processing, basis functions and; Spatial organization; Spatial representation; Spatiotemporal trajectory representation; Species‐specific narrow identities, multiple realization and; Specific sense‐energy; Spence, Kenneth; Spezifische Sinnesenergien; Spinal circuits; Spinal cord; Spinal cord‐based learning; Spinal plasticity; Spinal reflexes; Split‐brain syndrome; SR.; SRR.; SRT.; Startle response; Start‐up/termination conditions, of mechanistic reduction; State‐space form; State variables; Steiner tree optimization; Stewart, Matthew; STFP.; Stimulus‐response‐reward (SRR); Stressor presentation; Stress procedures; Strobe light, stress procedures; The Structure of Science (Nagel); STS.; Subgoals, adoption of; Subjective factors, in science; Subjectivity; Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc); Substrates; Suffering, of nonhuman animals; Sufka, Kenneth; Superior temporal sulcus (STS); Supplementary eye fields (SEF); Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); Surround effects, inhibitory networks and; Synapses, of dendritic spines; Synaptic efficacy; Synaptic network; Synaptic pathways; Synaptic plasticity; Synaptic structures, of hippocampus; Synchronous firing, of SCN; Syntactical manipulation, of representational states; Synthesis, NEF and; A System of Logic (Mill); Systems; Systems biology; Systems neuroscience; Tactile receptors; Tactile‐visual substitution system (TVSS); Tail flick; Tamoxifen; Teleosemantics; Temporal constraints, of mechanisms; Temporal decoding; Temporal generalization, of emulation theory; Temporal lobe stimulation; Temporal‐parietal junction, diagram of; Temporal representation; Tensarama; Terry Schiavo case; Theoretical neuroscience; Theory, levels of; Thigmotaxis; Thompson, Richard; Three Faces of Desire (Schroeder); Timeaus (Plato); Time‐keeping mechanism, in SCN; Time update; Timing code view; Timing coding, biologically plausible; Timing mechanism; Tool development; Top‐down excitatory experiments; Top‐down inhibitory experiments; Top‐down research model; Top‐down view, of delusional experience; Touch, object exploration and; Tracking; Trajectory emulation; Trajectory estimation; Transformation, NEF and; Transitive relation; A Treatise of Human Nature (Hume); Tuning curve resemblance; Tuning curves; TVSS.; Two visual systems; Tye, Michael; UCS.; Unconditioned stimulus (UCS); Unconscious perception; Unconscious states; Univocal realization, multiple realization and; U.S. Animal Welfare Act; V1.; Value proxies; van Essen, D.C.; Vasopressin; Ventral tegmental area (VTA); Vertebrate pain signals; Vincent, Jean‐Didier; Vipassana meditation; Vision research; Visual agnosia; Visual awareness; Visual consciousness; Visual development, enactivism and; Visual effects, of mescaline; Visual experience; Visual field; Visual processing hierarchy; Visual prosthetic devices; Visual scene changes, eye movement and; Visual sensitivity; Visual short‐term memory (VSTM); Vivid daydreaming; VNO.; Volume control, of desire; Vomeronasal organ (VNO); Vomeronasal sense, pheromone‐detecting; Vomeronasal states; Vomeronasal system; VTA.; Vulpian, A.; Warwick, Kevin; Watson, James; WCS.; Weldon, Morgan; Wiesel, Torsten; Wilhelm von Brücke, Ernst; Williams, R. C.; Wilson, M. A.; Wittgenstein, Ludwig; Working memory systems; World Color Survey (WCS); Zebrafish escape and swimming control; Zeitgebers; Zeki, Semir; Zen meditation, attentional disorders and; Zeugmtography; Zipser Andersen model
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