Process and Outcomes in Counseling and Psychotherapy

Sara Maltzman

in The Oxford Handbook of Counseling Psychology

Published in print November 2011 | ISBN: 9780195342314
Published online September 2012 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Library of Psychology

Process and Outcomes in Counseling and Psychotherapy

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  • Counselling Psychology



This chapter reviews process and outcome research in counseling and psychotherapy. An overview of the research is described in its historical context. The imperative for evaluating mediator and moderator variables is described. The interactional influence between methodology and outcome research is discussed in the context of conclusions and causal inferences drawn from various methodologies and analyses. In particular, the contribution of meta-analytic techniques is discussed. Last, the medical and common factors contextual models are discussed. The biopsychosocial model is suggested as an alternative model. Specific applications of the biospsychosocial model to process and outcome research are described. A biopsychosocial understanding of attachment and resilience is offered as a framework for facilitating process and outcome research and an understanding of psychosocial flourishing.

Keywords: process; outcome; common factors; contextual model; biopsychosocial; attachment; resilience; flourishing

Article.  23818 words. 

Subjects: Psychology ; Counselling Psychology

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