Training and Supervision

Nicholas Ladany and Arpana G. Inman

in The Oxford Handbook of Counseling Psychology

Published in print November 2011 | ISBN: 9780195342314
Published online September 2012 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Library of Psychology

 Training and Supervision

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  • Counselling Psychology


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Training and supervision theory and research is reviewed, specifically in relation to counselor education and training linked to the development of therapist competence, and supervision. Counselor competence is defined and reviewed along three areas: knowledge, self-awareness, and skills. Multiple areas of supervision are examined: history of supervision; predominant, theoretical models of supervision; supervisor techniques; the supervisory relationship; multicultural diversity; supervisor self-disclosure; supervisor countertransference; supervisee development; supervisee and supervisor nondisclosures; sexual attraction; supervision ethics; parallel process; client outcome; evaluation; supervisee competence; supervisee and supervisor professional competence problems; harmful supervision; supervisor training and competence; and specialized methods and topic areas of supervision. Throughout the chapter, we provide future research directions and practice implications for each training and supervision area reviewed. We conclude with some ideas about why training and supervision fails, fails to succeed, succeeds to fail, and succeeds.

Keywords: supervision; training; education

Article.  21381 words. 

Subjects: Psychology ; Counselling Psychology

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