Article

Theories of Intelligence

Michael K. Gardner

in The Oxford Handbook of School Psychology

Published in print February 2011 | ISBN: 9780195369809
Published online November 2012 | | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195369809.013.0035

Series: Oxford Library of Psychology

 Theories of Intelligence

More Like This

Show all results sharing these subjects:

  • Psychology
  • Educational Psychology

GO

Show Summary Details

Preview

This chapter reviews major theories of intelligence. The theories are grouped into four major theory types: (1) psychometric theories; (2) cognitive theories; (3) cognitive-contextual theories; and (4) biological theories. Psychometric theories derive from studying individual differences in test performance on cognitive tests. Questions about the structure of human intelligence, including the importance of general intelligence, have dominated the psychometric theories. Cognitive theories derive from studying the processes involved in intelligent performance. These processes range from the very simple (e.g., inspection time) to the fairly complex (e.g., working memory). Different theorists have focused on different processes (or aspects of these processes, such as processing speed). Cognitive-contextual theories emphasize processes that demonstrate intelligence within a particular context (such as a cultural environment). Major theories include Sternberg’s triarchic theory, Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, and Piaget’s theory of development. Biological theories emphasize the relationship between intelligence, and the brain and its functions. Numerous relationships have been found, but none have been elaborated into a detailed theory of the neuropsychology of intelligence. The chapter concludes with several questions for future research in the area of intelligence.

Keywords: intelligence; individual differences; cognition

Article.  16834 words. 

Subjects: Psychology ; Educational Psychology

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Buy this work at Oxford University Press »

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.