Response to Intervention: Conceptual Foundations and Evidence-Based Practices

Frank M. Gresham

in The Oxford Handbook of School Psychology

Published in print February 2011 | ISBN: 9780195369809
Published online November 2012 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Library of Psychology

Response to Intervention: Conceptual Foundations and Evidence-Based Practices


Response to intervention (RTI) is based on the notion of determining whether an adequate or inadequate change in academic or behavioral performance has been accomplished by an intervention. In an RTI approach, decisions regarding changing or intensifying an intervention are based on how well or how poorly a student responds to an evidence-based intervention that is implemented with integrity. RTI is used to make important educational decisions about services for children in schools, including (but not exclusively) special education and related services. RTI has three defining features: (a) delivery of high-quality interventions that are evidence-based, (b) assessment of the rate and level performance using data-based practices, and (c) making important educational decisions about children and youth. RTI typically takes place in a three-tier model that includes universal, selected, and intensive interventions. Two basic approaches to RTI practice are problem solving approaches and standard protocol approaches, with the former approach being emphasized in this chapter. This chapter concludes with a discussion of treatment strengths and how it might be operationalized in the delivery of RTI-based approaches in schools.

Keywords: RTI; 3-tier model; standard protocol; problem solving

Article.  9185 words. 

Subjects: Psychology ; Educational Psychology

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