Article

Negative Slow Waves as Indices of Anticipation: The Bereitschaftspotential, the Contingent Negative Variation, and the Stimulus-Preceding Negativity

Cornelis H. M. Brunia, Geert J. M. van Boxtel and Koen B. E. Böcker

in The Oxford Handbook of Event-Related Potential Components

Published in print December 2011 | ISBN: 9780195374148
Published online September 2012 | | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195374148.013.0108

Series: Oxford Library of Psychology

 Negative Slow Waves as Indices of Anticipation: The Bereitschaftspotential, the Contingent Negative Variation, and the Stimulus-Preceding Negativity

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Preparing a movement or waiting for a stimulus that will show up in a few seconds is accompanied by a slow negative wave in the electroencephalogram (EEG). It is the result of a summation of a large number of postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the cell columns of the cortical brain areas that will—in one way or another—be involved in the processing of the future event. Three different types of anticipatory slow waves can be distinguished based on the experimental context in which they can be elicited: the Bereitschaftspotential (BP), the contingent negative variation (CNV), and the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN). This chapter discusses these potentials in detail. First, it considers which components might be distinguished and which brain areas might be involved in their emergence. It then answers the question of which neurotransmitter systems underlie their appearance and what functions they might have.

Keywords: anticipatory slow waves; Bereitschaftspotential; contingent negative variation; stimulus preceding negativity; postsynaptic potentials

Article.  13526 words. 

Subjects: Psychology ; Cognitive Psychology ; Cognitive Neuroscience

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