The Error-Related Negativity (ERN/Ne)

William J. Gehring, Yanni Liu, Joseph M. Orr and Joshua Carp

in The Oxford Handbook of Event-Related Potential Components

Published in print December 2011 | ISBN: 9780195374148
Published online September 2012 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Library of Psychology

 The Error-Related Negativity (ERN/Ne)

More Like This

Show all results sharing these subjects:

  • Psychology
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


Show Summary Details


We review two decades of research on the error-related negativity (ERN or Ne), a component of the event-related brain potential that accompanies errors in speeded performance. Theories of the ERN must contend with a wealth of experimental data, both in healthy subjects and in individuals with neurological and psychiatric conditions. Data regarding a number of other components, including the error positivity, feedback-related negativity, correct response negativity, and theta oscillations are thought by many to also constrain ERN theorizing. We attempt to characterize the past highlights and current trajectory of theorizing, computational modeling, and empirical research. We consider how the way in which ERN research is conducted affects its success, and we discuss some promising trends for the future. Although two decades have resulted in impressive theories and data, the ERN community awaits breakthrough developments by new investigators.

Keywords: error-related negativity; ERN; error negativity; Ne; feedback-related negativity; FRN; error detection; response conflict; reinforcement learning; anterior cingulate cortex.

Article.  42550 words. 

Subjects: Psychology ; Cognitive Psychology ; Cognitive Neuroscience

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Buy this work at Oxford University Press »

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.