Changing Commercial Policy in Japan, 1985–2010

Masahiro Kawai and Shujiro Urata

in The Oxford Handbook of International Commercial Policy

Published in print May 2012 | ISBN: 9780195378047
Published online September 2012 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Handbooks

 Changing Commercial Policy in Japan, 1985–2010

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This article examines the changing nature of Japan's commercial policy over the last twenty-five years. The article is organized as follows. Section 2 reviews the changing structures of trade, foreign direct investment, and the economy in Japan that underlay policy changes. Section 3 focuses on Japan's commercial policy between 1985 and 1999, when policy-makers adopted a two-track approach of relying on multilateral liberalization under the GATT/WTO and open regionalism under Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation on the one hand and on the bilateral trade relationship with the United States on the other. Section 4 examines Japan's more recent commercial policy since the turn of the century as the country increasingly began to rely on bilateral and plurilateral economic partnership agreements, particularly with—but not limited to—East Asian economies. It is argued that agricultural sector liberalization is key to the further integration of Japan with the Asian and global economies. Section 5 concludes.

Keywords: Japanese commercial policy; trade policy; foreign direct investment; trade liberalization; GATT; WTO; Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation; bilateral trade; economic partnership agreements

Article.  11049 words. 

Subjects: Economics ; International Economics ; Public Economics

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