Article

Crime and Criminal Justice

Michael Tonry

in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice

Published in print September 2011 | ISBN: 9780195395082
Published online September 2012 | | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195395082.013.0001

Series: Oxford Handbooks

 Crime and Criminal Justice

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This article provides an overview of the American criminal justice system. Section I discusses patterns of crime and victimization rates and trends since the 1960s and 1970s. The most noteworthy trend is that crime has been declining—for most offenses substantially—since 1991. Section II describes the organization of the justice system. Section III discusses punishment patterns and trends. The most noteworthy are the extraordinary increase in imprisonment since 1973 and the overrepresentation of black people among prisoners. Section IV looks back on the earlier sections and tries to tie them together.

Keywords: American criminal justice system; crime rates; crime trends; punishment; imprisonment

Article.  8534 words. 

Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice ; Crime Prevention

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