Cross-Cultural Leadership

Rajiv Kumar and Jagdeep S. Chhokar

in The Oxford Handbook of Leadership

Published in print November 2012 | ISBN: 9780195398793
Published online December 2012 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Library of Psychology

Cross-Cultural Leadership


This chapter determines cultural differences, such as individualism versus collectivism and long-term versus short-term orientation, and also argues that directive leadership may be more problematic in individualistic cultures. Culture has a role in the difference between self and others' rating in 360-degree feedback. The GLOBE project resulted in the determination of nine dimensions of societal culture: performance orientation, future orientation, gender egalitarianism, assertiveness, in-group collectivism, institutional collectivism, power distance, humane orientation, and uncertainty avoidance. It is observed that although some leadership behaviors vary less across cultures, others vary more. The GLOBE studies have shown that six second-order factors of leadership attributes were endorsed across cultures, and also revealed charismatic/value-based leadership to be universally endorsed. Cross-cultural studies using transformational leadership indicate that there are similarities and differences between the nature and effect of transformational leadership across cultures.

Keywords: cultural differences; individualism; collectivism; long-term orientation; short-term orientation; societal culture; transformational leadership; GLOBE

Article.  12900 words. 

Subjects: Psychology ; Social Psychology

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