Combining brain imaging with brain stimulation: causality and connectivity

Tomáš Paus

in Oxford Handbook of Transcranial Stimulation

Published in print January 2008 | ISBN: 9780198568926
Published online November 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780191744013 | DOI:

Series: Oxford Library of Psychology

 Combining brain imaging with brain stimulation: causality and connectivity

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  • Neuropsychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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This article establishes the concept of a methodological approach to combine brain imaging with brain stimulation. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool that allows perturbing neural activity, in time and space, in a noninvasive manner. This approach allows the study of the brain-behaviour relationship. Under certain circumstances, the influence of one region on other, called the effective connectivity, can be measured. Functional connectivity is the extent of correlation in brain activity measured across a number of spatially distinct brain regions. This tool of connectivity can be applied to any dataset acquired with brain-mapping tools. However, its interpretation is complex. Also, the technical complexity of the combined studies needs to be resolved. Future studies may benefit from focusing on neurochemical transmission in specific neural circuits and on temporal dynamics of cortico-cortical interactions.

Keywords: brain imaging; brain stimulation; noninvasive; brain-behaviour relationship; correlation; brain-mapping

Article.  5136 words. 

Subjects: Neuropsychology ; Cognitive Neuroscience

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