Movement Disorders

Mark Hallett and Alfredo Berardelli

in Oxford Handbook of Transcranial Stimulation

Published in print January 2008 | ISBN: 9780198568926
Published online November 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780191744013 | DOI:

Series: Oxford Library of Psychology

 Movement Disorders

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  • Neuropsychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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This article focuses on the potential therapeutic uses of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in movement disorders. The brain can be stimulated with low levels of direct electrical current, called direct current polarization (tDCS). High-frequency repetitive TMS might increase brain excitability and be used for therapy in Parkinson's disease. Single sessions with TMS, however, have not proven to be very effective. Treatment with tDCS has been performed in some open studies with some success, but these results need confirmation. Physiological findings in dystonia reveal a decrease in intracortical inhibition. There have been a few studies of patients with Tourette's syndrome with mixed results. To date, clinical results with TMS in movement disorders have been mixed, and more work will be needed to clarify the potential clinical role of TMS.

Keywords: movement disorders; direct current polarization; Parkinson's disease; dystonia; brain excitability; therapy

Article.  4198 words. 

Subjects: Neuropsychology ; Cognitive Neuroscience

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