Article

Assessing the Text‐Critical Theories of the Hebrew Bible after Qumran

Ronald S. Hendel

in The Oxford Handbook of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Published in print October 2010 | ISBN: 9780199207237
Published online January 2011 | | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199207237.003.0012

Series: Oxford Handbooks in Religion and Theology

Assessing the Text‐Critical Theories of the Hebrew Bible after Qumran

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The biblical texts from Qumran are the oldest manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible, dating from the mid-third century BCE through the first century CE. Prior to the discovery of the Qumran texts, evidence for the early history of the biblical text consisted of three major versions – the Masoretic text (MT), the Septuagint (LXX), and the Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) – each with an unbroken chain of transmission to the present day. This article assesses the major text-critical theories of the Hebrew Bible after Qumran. First, it surveys the textual situation at Qumran and the relationships among the Qumran texts and the major versions (MT, LXX, and SP), using, as a perspicuous example, the texts of Exodus. Then, the article addresses the adequacy of the text-critical theories, testing their strengths and weaknesses against this evidence. The major protagonists in the theoretical discussion are Frank M. Cross, Shemaryahu Talmon, Emanuel Tov, and Eugene Ulrich.

Keywords: Hebrew Bible; Qumran texts; Exodus; Frank M. Cross; Shemaryahu Talmon; Emanuel Tov; Eugene Ulrich; Masoretic text; Septuagint; Samaritan Pentateuch

Article.  8845 words. 

Subjects: Religion ; Judaism and Jewish Studies ; Religious Studies ; Religion in the Ancient World

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