Nationalism without States

Montserrat Guibernau

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Nationalism

Published in print March 2013 | ISBN: 9780199209194
Published online May 2013 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Handbooks in History

Nationalism without States

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  • History
  • Contemporary History (Post 1945)



This chapter is divided into four parts. First it establishes a distinction between the concepts of nation, state, and nationalism and argues that not all nationalisms aim at outright independence. Second it considers the influence of Romanticism upon the revival of vernacular languages and cultures; a process, which at the turn of the nineteenth century prompted a shift from cultural to political demands on behalf of nation without, states such as Catalonia and Scotland. Third, it offers an outline of the development of nationalism in Catalonia, Scotland, and Quebec. Fourth it examines different political responses to the nationalism of nations without states; these include cultural recognition, political autonomy, and federation. Finally, the chapter considers whether devolution fosters separatism or, on the contrary, it locks regional movements into a constant tension with the state.

Keywords: Nation; nationalism; state; devolution; separatism; federation; repression; recognition; Catalonia; Quebec; Scotland

Article.  10200 words. 

Subjects: History ; Contemporary History (Post 1945)

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