Trade and Environment

Daniel Bodansky and Jessica C. Lawrence

in The Oxford Handbook of International Trade Law

Published in print January 2009 | ISBN: 9780199231928
Published online September 2012 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Handbooks in Law

Trade and Environment

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  • Environment and Energy Law



The trade and environmental regimes are two of the most dynamic regimes in all of international law. There are physical and economic effects of trade on the environment. This article briefly considers this relationship, because empirical questions about the actual effects of free trade on the environment form an important part of the backdrop for the trade and environment debate. This article mainly focuses on the second type of relationship, that is, the legal interactions between the two regimes. The issue that has spawned a large literature, reflecting very different perspectives is the extent and ways in which trade helps or hurts the environment. The article considers vectors through which trade can also cause environmental harm indirectly and suggests wide array of criteria in assessing the compatibility of environmental measures with the trade regime.

Keywords: trade; environmental effects; economic effects; harm; regime

Article.  15170 words. 

Subjects: Law ; International Law ; Environment and Energy Law

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