Empirical Models of Spatial Inter‐Dependence

Robert J. Franzese and Jude C. Hays

in The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology

Published in print August 2008 | ISBN: 9780199286546
Published online September 2009 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Handbooks of Political Science

Empirical Models of Spatial Inter‐Dependence

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  • Politics
  • Political Methodology
  • Comparative Politics



This article discusses the role of ‘spatial interdependence’ between units of analysis by using a symmetric weighting matrix for the units of observation whose elements reflect the relative connectivity between unit i and unit j. It starts by addressing spatial interdependence in political science. There are two workhorse regression models in empirical spatial analysis: spatial lag and spatial error models. The article then addresses OLS estimation and specification testing under the null hypothesis of no spatial dependence. It turns to the topic of assessing spatial lag models, and a discussion of spatial error models. Moreover, it reports the calculation of spatial multipliers. Furthermore, it presents several newer applications of spatial techniques in empirical political science research: SAR models with multiple lags, SAR models for binary dependent variables, and spatio-temporal autoregressive (STAR) models for panel data.

Keywords: spatial interdependence; political science; spatial lag models; spatial error models; spatio-temporal autoregressive model; SAR model; OLS

Article.  12561 words. 

Subjects: Politics ; Political Methodology ; Comparative Politics

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