Article

Bretton Woods Institutions

Ngaire Woods

in The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations

Published in print November 2008 | ISBN: 9780199560103
Published online September 2009 | | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199560103.003.0013

Series: Oxford Handbooks in Politics & International Relations

 Bretton Woods Institutions

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This article discusses the Bretton Woods Institutions, which are often described as the ‘sister institutions’ of the United Nations. It explains how the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) generated heated debate and criticism, most especially over the past twenty years. It shows what the institutions do and determines why they have become controversial. The article also identifies the two key factors that limit the effectiveness of the institutions.

Keywords: Bretton Woods Institutions; sister institutions; World Bank; International Monetary Fund; debate; criticism; controversy; effectiveness; key factors

Article.  9556 words. 

Subjects: Politics ; International Relations

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