Neuroscience and neuroethics in the 21st century

Martha J. Farah

in Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics

Published in print April 2011 | ISBN: 9780199570706
Published online November 2012 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Library of Psychology

Neuroscience and neuroethics in the 21st century

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  • Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Clinical Psychology



Neuroethics has developed rapidly, driven in large part by developments in neuroscience. This article reviews neuroethics from the standpoint of its growing real-world relevance. It opens up with an analysis of the history of neuroscience that suggests the reason for the emergence of neuroethics now, in the early twenty-first century. It proceeds to survey current applications of neuroscience to diverse real-world problems. Published research in the field of neuromarketing is more focused on academic issues, such as the nature of the brain activity underlying consumer behavior and the accuracy of brain-behavior predictions, than it is on the real-world utility of neuromarketing for improving business. Finally, this article concludes with a discussion of the ethical issues raised by these developments, and outlines three general challenges for society in the age of neuroscience.

Keywords: neuroethics; neuroscience; neuromarketing; ethical issues; brain behavior

Article.  9908 words. 

Subjects: Psychology ; Cognitive Neuroscience ; Clinical Psychology

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