Europe: 1800–2000

Andrew Lees and Lynn Hollen Lees

in The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History

Published in print February 2013 | ISBN: 9780199589531
Published online April 2013 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Handbooks in History

Europe: 1800–2000


Europe's cities experienced a population explosion in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as the dual pressures of industrialization and state development encouraged migration from the countryside to towns and from smaller towns to larger ones. Urban growth in Europe occurred within the framework of a distinctive urban heritage: long-term continuity of sites and central plans, relatively stable urban hierarchies, traditions of effective local governance, and well developed civic identities. Urbanization in Europe over the last 200 years has been marked both by innovation and respect for tradition. This article follows its trajectory by focusing on the impact of technological change, the emergence of environmental and social problems, and both voluntary and governmental efforts to cope with them.

Keywords: European cities; industrialization; state development; migration; urban growth; urbanization; technological change; environmental problems; social problems

Article.  8664 words. 

Subjects: History ; European History

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