Article

Fascism and Catholicism

J. F. Pollard

in The Oxford Handbook of Fascism

Published in print October 2010 | ISBN: 9780199594788
Published online September 2012 | | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199594788.013.0010

Series: Oxford Handbooks in History

 Fascism and Catholicism

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The first fascist movement to come to power, Italian fascism, did so in a country that was 99 per cent Catholic and the seat of the papacy, and ‘clerical fascist’ movements came to power in another two overwhelmingly Catholic countries, the first Slovak Republic and the Croatian Independent State. Fascist movements and regimes in other European countries also entered into relations with the Roman Catholic Church, and in broader terms, many Catholics, individually and collectively, were closely involved with fascist movements and regimes in the inter-war years. This article analyses the complex relationships between fascism, the institutional church, and Catholics more generally. It examines the initial attitudes of fascist movements to Catholicism/the Catholic Church, the encounter between fascism and Catholicism, and the interests and common enemies that brought them together in this encounter.

Keywords: Italian fascism; Catholic Church; papacy; Slovak Republic; Croatian Independent State; fascist movements

Article.  8224 words. 

Subjects: History ; International History

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