Radu Ioanid

in The Oxford Handbook of Fascism

Published in print October 2010 | ISBN: 9780199594788
Published online September 2012 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Handbooks in History


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The modern Romanian state was born in the nineteenth century, as a result of the struggle for the independence and unity of its intellectual and political elites in a fragile and shifting equilibrium between the Great Powers. Its political functioning remained troubled. Between the two world wars, governmental majorities never cooperated with the opposition, even though their programmes were not very different. Electoral fraud and electoral premiums characterized the inter-war Romanian electoral process. Romanian fascism proclaimed itself to be the spiritual heir of the nineteenth- and early twentieth-century native strains of conservatism and xenophobia. The most powerful component of this xenophobia was anti-Semitism, which from the nineteenth century expressed itself in economic, social, religious, and political models. Basically, most of the founding fathers of the Romanian modern state who took on any major role in politics, economics, social sciences, philosophy, or literature, were anti-Semites.

Keywords: anti-Semitism; xenophobia; world wars; conservatism; electoral fraud; electoral premium

Article.  7219 words. 

Subjects: History ; European History

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