Modeling and Performance

Penny McCullagh, Barbi Law and Diane Ste-Marie

in The Oxford Handbook of Sport and Performance Psychology

Published in print August 2012 | ISBN: 9780199731763
Published online November 2012 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Library of Psychology

Modeling and Performance

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  • Psychology
  • Health Psychology
  • Organizational Psychology



In this chapter we review theoretical and conceptual approaches in the sport and exercise psychology literature, as well as recognizing research in other domains (performing arts, education, medicine, health) to determine the influence that watching oneself or others can have on one's own performance, as well as on psychological variables such as self-efficacy, anxiety, and self-regulation. We recognize that various terms have been used to describe this phenomenon, including observational learning, modeling, and self-modeling, and we also review recent research that shows how athletes use observation in realistic sport settings. Finally, a brief discussion of role models and the influence that technology has had, including the influence of virtual models, is highlighted. Suggestions for future research are included throughout the chapter.

Keywords: Observational learning; self-modeling; modeling; video; virtual model; role models; dyad learning; self-efficacy; self-regulation

Article.  18185 words. 

Subjects: Psychology ; Health Psychology ; Organizational Psychology

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