Exploring the Minds of Managers

Richard P. Bagozzi and Willem J.M.I. Verbeke

in The Oxford Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship

Published in print August 2011 | ISBN: 9780199734610
Published online November 2012 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Library of Psychology

 Exploring the Minds of Managers

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  • Psychology
  • Organizational Psychology
  • Social Psychology


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Neuroscience provides new ways to think about and conduct research in organizations. We summarize findings from three of our studies that explore how theory of mind (ToM), empathy, and Machiavellianism function in organizations, particularly for sales managers. Study 1 derives a 13-item theory of mind scale and validates it; Study 2 shows how empathy and ToM undergrid customer orientation, and Study 3 reveals that Machiavellians versus non-Machiavellians are better at resonating to the feelings of others in automatic ways but at the same time are less able to take the perspective of others (put themselves in the shoes of others) and feel more anxiety in interactions, among other differences.

Keywords: Theory of mind; empathy; customer orientation; neuroscience; interpersonal mentalizing; sales managers; Machiavellianism

Article.  10307 words. 

Subjects: Psychology ; Organizational Psychology ; Social Psychology

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