Forgiveness at Four Levels

David S. Bright and Julie J. Exline

in The Oxford Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship

Published in print August 2011 | ISBN: 9780199734610
Published online November 2012 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Library of Psychology

 Forgiveness at Four Levels

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Forgiveness describes a family of actions intended to break or prevent destructive cycles of human interaction. This chapter describes how forgiveness might be conceptualized at four levels: intrapersonal, relational, organizational, and collective-group. The chapter provides an overview of these four different conceptualizations on forgiveness, the work that has been accomplished relative to each conceptualization, and potential avenues for new research. Although research on forgiveness has exploded, most work has focused on forgiveness at the individual level. It is rare to find studies that examine forgiveness in organizational contexts; yet, forgiveness concepts have substantial potential and relevance in organization studies.

Keywords: Forgiveness; intrapersonal forgiveness; relational forgiveness; interpersonal forgiveness; intergroup forgiveness; organizational forgiveness; collective-group forgiveness

Article.  10393 words. 

Subjects: Psychology ; Organizational Psychology ; Social Psychology

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