Parties, Campaigns, and Elections

Amy Below

in The Oxford Handbook of U.S. Environmental Policy

Published in print October 2012 | ISBN: 9780199744671
Published online January 2013 | | DOI:
Parties, Campaigns, and Elections


This article reviews existing literature concerning the relationships between parties, campaigns, and elections and environmental politics and policy. It reviews studies conducted on the ability of political parties (the Democratic, Republican, and Green Parties, specifically) to represent environmental interests and win elections, the impact environmental issues have on campaigns and elections, and how well elected representatives carry out their pro- or anti-environmental campaign pledges once in office. It then considers the role of direct democracy and the evolution of environmentally related initiatives and referenda, and their success at the polls. The last section focuses on the role of the media in environmental politics and policy. One of the largest impacts the media have on the electoral process is their ability to craft the agenda for political candidates and policy makers. The article also highlights gaps in knowledge and suggests areas for future research.

Keywords: political parties; environmental politics; environmental policy; environmental interests; campaign pledges; direct democracy; media

Article.  11650 words. 

Subjects: Politics ; US Politics

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