Article

Green Criminology

Michael J. Lynch and Paul B. Stretesky

in The Oxford Handbook of Criminological Theory

Published in print November 2012 | ISBN: 9780199747238
Published online December 2012 | | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199747238.013.0032

Series: Oxford Handbooks

 Green Criminology

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Green criminology addresses forms of crime that harm the environment but are often ignored in criminological research. Green crimes cause both direct and indirect forms of harm, the former of which affect the ecosystem and the latter a consequence of direct harms. Compared to criminal harms, green crimes and harms are much more widespread. Policies intended to control crime and address biases in law and law enforcement must incorporate green criminology in order to reduce environmental pollution. This article reviews the history of green criminology, including its rationale and definition. It then analyzes the variety of green victims, including direct ecological harms and indirect harms to human and non-human species. It also discusses the primary kinds of direct environmental harms such as air, land, water, mining and timber crimes, as well as the issue of green policies with respect to efforts to reduce environmental pollution and toxins.

Keywords: green criminology; green crimes; toxins; environmental pollution; indirect harms; direct harms; green policies

Article.  9371 words. 

Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice ; Theories of Crime

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