Methods for Translating and Adapting Tests to Increase Cross-Language Validity

Ronald K. Hambleton and Minji Kang Lee

in The Oxford Handbook of Child Psychological Assessment

Published in print April 2013 | ISBN: 9780199796304
Published online May 2013 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Library of Psychology

Methods for Translating and Adapting Tests to Increase Cross-Language Validity

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  • Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology



Translating and adapting tests for use in multiple language and cultural groups has become immensely important to psychologists and cross-cultural researchers. Psychologists want to use popular tests from one language and culture in others; cross-cultural researchers need tests they are interested in to be available in multiple languages and cultures; and credentialing agencies often need to make their tests available in multiple languages. Unfortunately, the methodology for conducting translation and adaptation studies is more comprehensive than is often assumed, and many myths about the process itself exist, and so all too often, the process is handled poorly. In this chapter, three goals will be addressed: (1) several of the popular myths will be described, (2) steps for translating and adapting tests will be presented, and (3) the International Test Commission Guidelines for Test Adaptation will be introduced.

Keywords: backward translation design; forward translation design; International Test Commission (ITC) guidelines for test adaptation; judgmental review; measurement invariance; multiple indicator and multiple cause model; partial invariance; structural equating modeling

Article.  7266 words. 

Subjects: Psychology ; Clinical Psychology

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