Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking

Edward R. Kleemans

in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Public Policy

Published in print August 2011 | ISBN: 9780199844654
Published online September 2012 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Handbook in Criminology & Criminal Justice

Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking

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  • Transactional Crime
  • Property Crime



Human smuggling and human trafficking are phenomena that require different policy responses. This article summarizes data, figures, and patterns concerning human smuggling and human trafficking. In practice, the two different phenomena may be intertwined. Human smuggling basically involves mutual consent between illegal immigrants, their families, and smugglers. In combating human trafficking, involuntary prostitution, helping victims, and prosecuting offenders are key issues. A much discussed element in forced prostitution is the involvement of criminal groups and organized crime. This article is devoted to policy measures and interventions and highlights research priorities for the coming decade. An important area for research is the method by which different prostitution and enforcement policies affect the opportunities and restrictions of various parties: clients, owners, operators, pimps, and prostitutes.

Keywords: human smuggling; human trafficking; sexual exploitation; criminal groups; enforcement policies

Article.  8452 words. 

Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice ; Transactional Crime ; Property Crime

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